EVOLUTION

ANIMAL BREEDS

DISEASES

MEDICATIONS

FOOD/FEED

BEHAVIOUR

EXOTIC ANIMALS

SPECIAL SECTION

Viral Disease - Classical Swine Fever

Synonym

Hog Cholera, Peste du Porc, Colera Porcina, Virusschweinepest, african pig disease, wart hog disease

Etiology

Family Flaviviridae (Genus: Pestivirus)

Geographic Distribution

Asia, South America, Central America, Parts of Africa and Caribbean islands, Mexico, Eradicated in United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Most of Europe.

Morbidity and Mortality

animal age and immune status is important, Higher mortality in younger animals is noticed with Varies with viral strain

Acute: High mortality (up to 100%)

Subacute: Lower morbidity and mortality rates

Chronic: Few animals affected - always fatal

Some cases are asymptomatic

Animal Transmission

Highly contagious disease, transmitted by blood, saliva, urine, feces and tissues of infected pigs

Transmission

Ingestion of Contaminated garbage or meat products, Direct contact or fomites Less common by aerosol, semen, vectors. Infected pigs are act as only reservoir.

Pathogenesis

Entry of virus → Initial replication in Nasopharnyx→ Tonsils→ then Viremia occurs → Virus has affinity for endothelial. Cells & RE System their proliferation of endothelial Cells happen. (Croupous PneumoniaIn lung). Haemorrhage Necrosis Infarction and Hyaline degn. Infiltration

Clinical Signs

CSF only affects pigs and the Incubation period is 2-14 days.

Disease variablefrom acutely fatal to asymptomatic.

Persistent viremia was seen.

Congenitally infected piglets Shed the virus for months.

Signs mimic other swine diseases.

Acute disease

Huddling, dullness

High fever (105oF)

Anorexia

Erythema, cyanosis

Petechiae

Staggering, weakness

Convulsions

Poor reproductive performance

Abortions, stillbirths

Deformities

Post Mortem Lesions

Highly variable

Acute infection

Hemorrhage

Necrotic foci in tonsils

Petechiae (Kidney, larynx, trachea, intestines, spleen, lungs)

Chronic infection

Necrotic foci

Intestinal mucosa ('button' ulcers)

Epiglottis

Larynx

Congenital infection

Cerebellar hypoplasia, thymic atrophy, deformities of head and legs

Differential Diagnosis

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)

Porcine circovirus associated disease

Salmonellosis

Erysipelas

Leptospirosis

Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies)

African swine fever

Tonsil samples should be sent with every submission to your state diagnostic lab

Diagnosis

It is impossible without lab testing

Laboratory Tests

Detect virus, antigens, nucleic acids

  • » Tissue samples (tonsils, spleen, kidneys, distal ileum)
  • » Whole blood
  • » ELISA or direct immunofluorescence

Serology

  • » ELISA or virus neutralization
  • » Comparative neutralization test
  • » Definitive test

Treatment

None

Control

Identification of affected pigs, slaughter and quarantine premises.

Establish disease-free areas.


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