EVOLUTION

ANIMAL BREEDS

DISEASES

MEDICATIONS

FOOD/FEED

BEHAVIOUR

EXOTIC ANIMALS

SPECIAL SECTION

Viral Disease - Cow Pox

Etiology

Cowpox virus is a member of the genus Orthipoxvirus in the family poxviridae

Epidemiology

Endemic infection of certain rodents in Europe and east Asia. Cattle are a rare and incidental host. Spread in cattle by contact

Clinical findings

Typical pox lesions on the teats and udder. Erythema, papules with a zone of hyperemia around the base, vesiculation, pustular stage and scab

Clinical pathology

Electron microscopy

Differential diagnosis

A number of skin diseases may be accompanied by lesions on the udder and can easily be confused with cowpox if the lesions are advanced in age. Most outbreaks of teat skin disease that clinically resemble classical cowpox are associated with vaccinia virus from contact with a recently vaccinated person.

Pseudocowpox

Bovine ulcerative mammillitis associated with bovine herpesvirus-2 and bovine herpesvirus-4

Vesicular stomatitis, and foot and mouth disease

Udder impetigo

Teat chaps and frostbite

Black spot.

Diagnostic confirmation

Electron microscopy and virus isolation

Treatment

Palliative

Control

Prevention of spread is difficult, since the virus responsible for the disease is readily transmitted by direct or indirect contact. Udder cloths, milking machines and hands should be disinfected after contact with infected animals. Dipping of the teats in an alcoholic tincture of a suitable disinfectant, such as quaternary ammonium compounds, is usually satisfactory in preventing immediate spread. The prevalence and significance of the disease in cattle is too low to warrant the development of vaccines.


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