EVOLUTION

ANIMAL BREEDS

DISEASES

MEDICATIONS

FOOD/FEED

BEHAVIOUR

EXOTIC ANIMALS

SPECIAL SECTION

Viral Disease - Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis

Etiology

Herpes virus equi type 4, EHV-4 an alpha herpes virus.

SUSCEPTIBILE AGE

1-4 years

Epidemiology

Transmission between horses and by mediate contagion. Lifelong latency of infection with putative periodic reactivation of virus shedding. Respiratory disease occurs as sporadic disease and as outbreaks. Younger animals more commonly affected by disease. Immunity following vaccination or infection is apparently short lived

Clinical Signs

Fever

Congestion of nasal and conjunctival mucosa

Dry hacking cough

Recovery within 2-4 days

Death in complicated cases

"Roaring" due to paralysis of recurrent laryngeal nerve in few cases

LESIONS

Hemorrhagic or purulent bronchopneumonia

Disseminated abscesses

Intranuclear inclusions in respiratory epithelium, purulent rhinitis, tracheitis, and pneumonia

Clinical pathology

Seroconversion or increase in titer detected by ELISA able to differentiate EHV-l from EHV-4

Diagnostic confirmation

Virus isolation from, or polymerase chain reaction test on, blood, nasopharyngeal swabs or tissue. Seroconversion or increase in titer detected by ELISA able to differentiate EHV-l from EHV-4

Treatment

There is no specific treatment

Control

Vaccination of minimal efficacy, quarantine, hygiene.


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