EVOLUTION

ANIMAL BREEDS

DISEASES

MEDICATIONS

FOOD/FEED

BEHAVIOUR

EXOTIC ANIMALS

SPECIAL SECTION

Viral Disease - Peste des Petits Ruminants(PPR)

Introduction:

Pest of Small Ruminants, Pest of Sheep and Goats, Stomatitis-Pneumoenteritis Complex or Syndrome, Pseudorinderpest of Small Ruminants, Kata, Goat Plague, contagious Pustular Stomatitis

Etiology

Family Paramyxoviridae, Genus Morbillivirus (Similar to Rinderpest)

Other members of the family include

  • » Measles virus
  • » Canine distemper virus
  • » Phocid distemper virus of sea mammals

Susceptible Species

Principally goats and sheep

One report in captive wild ungulates

American white tail deer experimentally susceptible

Role of wildlife in transmission unknown

Cattle and pigs seroconvert but do not transmit disease

High mortality in Indian buffalo in 1977

Geographic Distribution

Africa, between the Sahara and the equator, The Middle East Arabian Peninsula, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Indian subcontinent.

Morbidity/Mortality

Morbidity 80-90%

Mortality 50-80%, can be up to 100%

More severe in young animals, poor nutrition, concurrent parasitic infections

Goats more susceptible than sheep

Transmission:

Close contact

Virus present in ocular, nasal and oral secretions and feces

No known carrier state

Unknown if fomites play a role

Clinical Signs

Incubation period -3 to 10 days

Acute fever and anorexia

Upper respiratory discharge progressing to catarrhal exudates

Profuse diarrhea, dehydration, emaciation, dyspnea and death in 5-10 days

Bronchopneumonia, abortion

Prognosis correlated with extent of mouth lesions

Post Mortem Lesions

Inflammatory and necrotic lesions in Oral cavity Throughout GI tract

Emaciation

"Zebra stripe" lesions of congestion in large intestine

Bronchopneumonia and other respiratory lesions

Enlarged lymph nodes

Lesions similar to Rinderpest

Diagnosis

Virus neutralization test and immunohistochemistry

Wide variety are used for detecting virus, viral antigen, viral nucleic acid and antibody

Differential Diagnosis

Rinderpest

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

Bluetongue

Pasteurellosis

Contagious ecthyma

Foot and mouth disease

Heartwater

Coccidiosis

Nairobi sheep disease

Mineral poisoning

Treatment

Hyper immune serum and symptomatic treatment for valuable animals

Control

Segregation of new stock, vaccination with tissue culture or other vaccines.

Recently Discussed Topics












Blog Archive