EVOLUTION

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FOOD/FEED

BEHAVIOUR

EXOTIC ANIMALS

SPECIAL SECTION

Viral Disease - Swine Pox

Etiology:

Swinepox virus, the sole member of the Sui poxvirus genus of Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of Poxviridae

Epidemiology

Widespread sporadic disease that is generally benign with low morbidity and low mortality in older pig's High case fatality in congenitally infected and very young sucking piglets. Transmitted mechanically and by the hog louse (Haematopinus suis)

Clinical findings

Characteristic pox lesions mainly on skin of head, legs and belly

Clinical Pathology

Demonstration of typical lesions by histology and virus by electron microscopy

Lesions

Typical pox lesions

Differential diagnosis

The distribution of the pox-like lesions and the association of the disease with louse infestations suggest the diagnosis. Swinepox may resemble swine vesicular disease, which is characterized by vesicles on the coronary bands, lips, tongue, and snout. Lesions associated with Tyrog/yphus spp. mites are usually larger and occur anywhere on the body, and like those of sarcoptic mange, are usually accompanied by itching. The causative mites are detectable in skin scrapings. Ringworm and pityriasis rosea have characteristic lesions that do not itch, occur in older pig than typically does swine pox, and fungal spores are present in scrapings in the former disease. A vesicular disease with necrosis resembling swine pox has been attributed to infection with parvoviris but there is little evidence that parvovirus is a primary skin pathogen.

Diagnostic confirmation:

Demonstration of typical lesions byistology and virus by electron microscopy

Treatment

No specific treatment is available and lesions cause so little concern to the pig, and heal so rapidly, that none is attempted

Control:

Vaccination is not usually practiced and control of the pig lice is the principal prophylactic measure attempted in most outbreaks.


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