EVOLUTION

ANIMAL BREEDS

DISEASES

MEDICATIONS

FOOD/FEED

BEHAVIOUR

EXOTIC ANIMALS

SPECIAL SECTION

Viral Disease - Vesicular Stomatitis

Synonym

Sore mouth of cattle and Horse

Definition

Infectious disease, affecting almost all animals caused by Rhabdo virus.

Etiology

Rhabdo virus

Incidence

The disease is limited to western hemisphere

Susceptibility

Mainly affects horse, cattle and pigs. Goat and sheep are resistant

Transmission:

Seasonal occurrence- Transmitted through vector (Mosquitoes, black flies, gnats and midges)

Pathogenesis

Virus multiply in mosquitoe (Aedes aegypti)

Bite the susceptible host

Pathogenesis is similar to FMD

Three antigenically different strains

  • » New jersey
  • » Indiana
  • » Trinidad

Clinical signs

Cattle: Vesicles on the tongue, lips, dental pad and buccal mucosa.

The vesicles ruptured and the resulting irritation causes profuse salivation and anorexia

Gross lesions

Cattle: Vesicles on the tongue, lips, dental pad and buccal mucosa

Horses: Lesions are limited to dorsum of the tongue or lips

Swine: Vesicles on the snout, or on the feet Lameness

No myocardial lesions, No / very low mortality

Diagnosis

Vesicular stomatitis cannot be produced in cattle by intramuscular inoculation

Lingual route only possible

FMD can be produced by intramuscular inoculation

Symptoms, Differential diagnosis with FMD

Treatment

Treatment is seldom undertaken but non-steroidal anti-inflammatories may contribute to the com fort of the animal and the rapidity of recovery.

Control

Hygienic and quarantine precautions to contain the infection within a herd are sufficient control and the disease usually dies out of its own accord. Animal movement off the farm should be prohibited until 30 days after all lesions have healed.

There are usually restrictions of movement of animals from infected areas to different jurisdictional areas that are free of clinical disease and vesicular stomatitis is an Office of International Epizootics List-A disease.

Immunity after an attack appears to be of very short duration, probably not more than 6 months, but serological titers persist much longer.

An autogenously killed vaccine was approved for use in dairy cattle in infected or at-risk areas during the 1995 outbreak in the United States but vaccine efficacy could not be determined.

A DNA vaccine expressing the glycoprotein gene from VS-NJ virus elicits neutralizing antibody titers in mice, cattle, and horses.

The level of protection of antibody required for protection is unknown.

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